Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Giver :: essays research papers

The Giver - Main Character Jonas, the main character in The Giver by Lois Lowry, is a very strong person, which allows him to go farther in life then the people that surround him. Throughout Jonas's life he has known nothing but "sameness". He lives in a Utopian community where there are no choices and everyone in his world has their lives laid out for them. But, Jonas is given the job of "Receiver of Memory". He alone knows the truths of the world, a world with colors, pain, and choices. What he does with these truths will bring obstacles to his life that will show the readers not only his strengths but his weaknesses as well. Jonas is made to bear the truths of the world alone and is troubled by what he should do with it. Jonas at first doesn't want the memories because after receiving several of them, all that Jonas has known is being questioned and his world turned upside down. 'He is angry and afraid after receiving his first set of memories. Angry because of what has been kept from him and afraid because now he doesn't know what to do. Jonas is uncertain whether the world he learns of is best for his community and if people can be trusted to make decisions on their own. In a conversation to "The Giver" (person passing down the memories) about whether or not it is safe to allow people to make their own choices, Jonas say, "What if they are allowed to choose their own mate? And chose wrong? . . . We really have to protect people from wrong choices." But, by the end of that conversation he is uncertain about his feelings and about many other things. Jonas is confused because he doesn't know what he should do about it or if he should do anything at all. Jonas finally decides to change the world (at least the one he knows of), but he faces many obstacles trying to do so. Jonas speaks to the Giver about giving memories to the community . He wants to share them with everyone and change the way the community works. He wants to give them choices and show them that there are differences. The Giver says the only way the community will receive them is if Jonas goes to the beyond and loses his connection to them.

Monday, January 13, 2020

P1 -Unit 8: Business Communication Through Documentation

Unit 8: Business Communication through Documentation Title: Identify, using examples, the purposes of written business communications in four different business contexts Written Business Communications Introduction: John Lewis, as a business, was founded in 1864 when it was just a shop  on  Oxford Street, which expanded over the years to become the third largest retailer in the UK. John Lewis is a Public Limited Company, this means that anyone with the right capital can buy (or sell) their shares within the business, in order to become a share-holder and receive dividends from profits.In addition, as a business, John Lewis sells various products and has a variety of over 80,000 products ranging from clothes to furniture, in order to suit and cater to the needs of any of their customers . Furthermore, in this assignment I will be investigating the retailer John Lewis and its operations; in order to determine examples of effective written business communications, with the use of do cumentation. Written Business Communications Effective communication within a business (John Lewis) is essential, in order to ensure their success and profitability.But Firstly, What is Communication? Communication can be defined as â€Å"the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another† [2]. This means that without communication, information or ideas cannot be utilized and no aspect of John Lewis can function properly. For example, if the delivery department cannot communicate with individual stores; therefore this means that John Lewis can’t coordinate with the individual stores, in order to determine what new stock is needed at any particular time.This results in John Lewis being unable to restock their stores properly, meaning products not needed are delivered for example. As a result, John Lewis looses out on potential customers and repeat sales, because consumers who wanted to purchase a specific product couldn’t due to the stock u navailability, leading to a loss in potential sales, repeat sales and profits for the business in the short and long term. Secondly, communication within John Lewis happens in various different methods, such as written, verbal and electronic.However in this assignment we will only be discussing the written communication aspects of John Lewis. There are various written documentation which are communicated throughout john Lewis. For example, letters, memos, text, faxes and emails are just some of the formal or informal communication methods used by businesses in the modern age. A written business document is a way of getting a message across internally and externally by employees or customers of John Lewis. There are various ways of written communication that are used by businesses.For example, depending of the situation an employee of john Lewis may need to contact their branch manager and the quickest, but maybe not the most formal way of doing so, would be by texting them [3]. Addi tionally, there are many forms of written communication, such as agenda’s, e-mails, letters, memorandums, reports, notices and minutes. A written business document is used as a type of communication as it is seen as a more formal and professional way to communicate internally and externally within a business.Purposes of Written Communication Most businesses understand that communication is crucial for successful business operations. The ways we conduct our business activities is changing rapidly, as a result communication, especially written has become essential, in order to deliver messages and information to any aspect or individual within the business. As a result, if used successfully the purpose of written communication, in my opinion, is to deliver information, in order to coordinates and establish successful business activities.This leads to an increase sales, and an increase in the profit in the long term for John Lewis. The purpose leads to the crucial question why d o we use written communication? Written communication can be used in various ways, depending on the sender and receiver of the information. For example, a manger will inform the owners or directors, by producing a written report telling them which products are selling better than other’s within a period of time. This form of written communication will be strictly professional and formal, informing them about changes in the business and there actives.However if an employee wanted to inform another member of staff about other issues then they could just email or text them, meaning a simpler, reliable and effective written communication process. Furthermore, it’s not only the internal customers but also external consumers who can communicate in a written manner with john Lewis. For example, a customer would communicate in a written manner with john Lewis if they have a complaint with any aspect of the business; such as a faulty product, leading to a customer having to ema il John Lewis regarding replacement of the product.In addition, a customer can also communicate with John Lewis because they have an inquiry to make regarding products or services provided by them. These are just some of the various reasons that customer make written enquires to John Lewis. Types of Written Communication Business Context| Document| Context(manager-employee or employee-costumer )| Purpose| Formal| Letter| Supplier to John Lewis,| To make an appointment to see the manager about supply of raw materials needed to produce the products in the production department of John Lewis. | Formal| Agendas | Set out topics to be covered at a meeting.An manger will send it to the employees he wants to come to the meeting | Usually sent out before a meeting to all the people that are meant to attend and inform attendees| Formal| Reports| Information, research and analysis on a specific aspect of a business,| Provides detail to help the businesses with decision making. So the purpose of this will be to inform an employee | Formal| Minutes of the meetings| A record of what actually took place at a meeting between manager and employees | It also records who attended the meeting, what was discussed nd how long and when the meeting took place and to confirm meeting feedback| Informal | Memorandums| They are mainly used for quick communication within a business, college to college | They are short, simple information meant to get your message across within a business, to the receiver and its purpose is to inform a staff member of manager what is going to happen or needs to happen | Formal | Schedules| Schedules are lists of planned activities or tasks that need to be completed and could be used between staff and managers | It is almost like a plan for the business, which can come in many forms such as lists or timetables and it is used to instruct people what to do | Informal | Notices| Important information on displays, or boards in order to inform employees or anyo ne associated with the business for example the marketing department and employees | This is done in order to notify and display general information which should be accessible to all members of staff. | The table above shows the various types of written communication methods, and their purposes. ConclusionIn conclusion I would state that this assignment has highlighted the importance of communication and especially the importance of written communication within John Lewis. Also I have discovered the various types of communication and why the different parties (such as customer, employees, suppliers) involved would use each method that suited their needs, as explained within the assignment. Bibliography – 1. NW-Link http://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/leader/leadcom. html Accessed on 24/09/2012 2. E-How http://www. ehow. co. uk/info_7785121_types-written-business-communication. html Accessed on 24/09/2012 3. E-How http://www. ehow. com/about_5563166_purpose-business-communicatio n. html Accessed on 24/09/2012 4. John Lewis http://www. johnlewis. com/ Accessed on 24/09/2012

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Terminal Velocity and Free Fall

Terminal velocity and free fall are two related concepts that tend to get confusing because they depend on whether or not a body is in empty space or in a fluid (e.g., and atmosphere or even water). Take a look at the definitions and equations of the terms, how they are related, and how fast a body falls in free fall or at terminal velocity under different conditions. Terminal Velocity Definition Terminal velocity is defined as the highest velocity that can be achieved by an object that is falling through a fluid, such as air or water. When terminal velocity is reached, the downward force of gravity is equal to the sum of the objects buoyancy and the drag force. An object a terminal velocity has zero net acceleration. Terminal Velocity Equation There are two particularly useful equations for finding terminal velocity. The first is for terminal velocity without taking into account buoyancy: Vt (2mg/Ï ACd)1/2 where: Vt is the terminal velocitym is the mass of the object that is fallingg is acceleration due to gravityCd is the drag coefficientÏ  is the density of the fluid through which the object is fallingA is the cross-sectional area projected by the object In liquids, in particular, its important to account for the buoyancy of the object. Archimedes principle is used to account for the displacement of volume (V) by the mass. The equation then becomes: Vt [2(m - Ï V)g/Ï ACd]1/2 Free Fall Definition The everyday use of the term free fall is not the same as the scientific definition. In common usage, a sky diver is considered to be in free fall upon achieving terminal velocity without a parachute. In actuality, the weight of the sky diver is supported by a cushion of air. Free fall is defined either according to Newtonian (classical) physics or in terms of general relativity. In classical mechanics, free fall describes the motion of a body when the only force acting upon it is gravity. The direction of the movement (up, down, etc.) is unimportant. If the gravitational field is uniform, it acts equally on all parts of the body, making it weightless or experiencing 0 g. Although it might seem strange, an object can be in free fall even when moving upward or at the top of its motion. A skydiver jumping from outside the atmosphere (like a HALO jump) very nearly achieves true terminal velocity and free fall. In general, as long as air resistance is negligible with respect to an objects weight, it can achieve free fall. Examples include: A spacecraft in space without a propulsion system engagedAn object thrown upwardAn object dropped from a drop tower or into a drop tubeA person jumping up In contrast, objects not in free fall include A flying birdA flying aircraft (because the wings provide lift)Using a parachute (because it counters gravity with drag and in some cases may provide lift)A skydiver not using a parachute (because the drag force equals his weight at terminal velocity) In general relativity, free fall is defined as the movement of a body along a geodesic, with gravity described as   space-time curvature. Free Fall Equation If an object is falling toward the surface of a planet and the force of gravity is much greater than the force of air resistance or else its velocity is much less than terminal velocity, the vertical velocity of free fall may be approximated as: vt gt v0 where: vt is the vertical velocity in meters per secondv0 is the initial velocity (m/s)g is the acceleration due to gravity (about 9.81 m/s2 near Earth)t is the elapsed time (s) How Fast Is Terminal Velocity? How Far Do You Fall? Because terminal velocity depends on drag and an objects cross section, there is no one speed for terminal velocity. In general, a person falling through the air on Earth reaches terminal velocity after about 12 seconds, which covers about 450 meters or 1500 feet. A skydiver in the belly-to-earth position reaches a terminal velocity of about 195 km/hr (54 m/s or 121 mph). If the skydiver pulls in his arms and legs, his cross section is decreased, increasing terminal velocity to about 320 km/hr (90 m/s or just under 200 mph). This is about the same as the terminal velocity achieved by a peregrine falcon diving for prey or for a bullet falling down after having been dropped or fired upward. The world record terminal velocity was set by Felix Baumgartner, who jumped from 39,000 meters and reached a terminal velocity of 134 km/hr (834 mph). References and Further Reading Huang, Jian (1999). Speed of a Skydiver (Terminal Velocity). The Physics Factbook. Glenn Elert, Midwood High School, Brooklyn College.All About the Peregrine Falcon. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. December 20, 2007. (archived)The Ballistician (March 2001). Bullets in the Sky. W. Square Enterprises, 9826 Sagedale, Houston, Texas 77089.

Friday, December 27, 2019

Summary and Critique of The Gift of Sex Essay - 3607 Words

A Book Review of The Gift of Sex University Abstract This paper is a summary of the book The Gift of Sex along with my responses for each section in the book. Along with the physical aspect of sex, there is a spiritual aspect of sex, which is mostly neglected by todays culture and even by Christians. The authors believe that sex is also a spiritual and emotional act, involving the total person, the body, soul and spirit. There is a connection with the sexual relationship of a husband and his wife, and the intimate relationship of God and man. Revelation of this reality would bring freedom and fulfillment in God and in marriage. There are many aspects to a sexual relationship between a husband and wife,†¦show more content†¦Scriptures such as Jeremiah 7:9, 23:10; Isaiah 62:5; and the entire book of Hosea reveal that the relationship of God and His people is compared to a marriage relationship. The symbolism of the bride and groom is depicted in the New Testament in scriptures such as Ephesians 5 and Revelation 19:6-7. The autho rs believe that sex is not just for unity and procreation, but also for pleasure in the marriage relationship. The Song of Songs is poetry of the erotic relationship between a man and his wife, which is filled with passionate feelings. Christ has broken down the barriers between men and women, and therefore they do not have to live by different standards of sexual pleasure any longer. Men and women are equal in terms of value, ability, and position before God. Therefore, both husband and wife are commanded to give themselves to each other in marriage, with love being the guiding principle for sexual behavior. Penner and Penner (2003) believe that, it is important for Christian couples to understand the Bibles pro-sex message (Kindle Location 425). I agree that sexuality reflects an aspect of the image of God in us and I believe that the church should openly speak out about the biblical perspective of the gift of sex. The concept of marriage is portrayed in the relationship the churc h has with Christ. God desires an intimate relationship with each one of us; one that reflects the depth of a sexual relationship between a man and a woman. SexualShow MoreRelatedThe Gift Of Sex : Critique And Review Based On God s Truth6129 Words   |  25 Pages â€Å"The Gift of Sex† Critique and Review Based on God’s Truth Stacy H. McConville Course: Issues in Human Sexuality June 26th 2015 Samantha Moroz Abstract Biblical sexual fulfillment is only achievable in the covenant of marriage, which is how God intends sexual fulfilment to be. In marriage sexual openness and fulfilment brings the two individuals that are united together into a deeper more intimate loving state. This deeperRead MoreFeminist/Marxist Analysis of the Hunger Games Essay examples4753 Words   |  20 PagesIntroduction and Book Summary From Wikipedia â€Å"The Hunger Games takes place after the destruction of North America, in a nation known as Panem, which consists of a wealthy Capitol and twelve surrounding, poorer districts. District 12, where the book begins, is located in the coal-rich region that was formerly Appalachia. As punishment for a previous rebellion against the Capitol in which a 13th district was destroyed, one boy and one girl between the ages of 12 and 18 from each district are selectedRead MoreThe Test For Critique : Frank Parsons1873 Words   |  8 Pages Test for Critique Frank Parsons opened the first career guidance center in Boston in 1908, he began by asking prospective clients â€Å"116 rigorous questions about their ambitions, strengths, and weaknesses†( Myer 25 ). But then he did something more unusual: He measured their skulls. Parsons was a committed believer in phrenology. If you had a large forehead, he might recommend you become a lawyer or engineer. But if your skull was more developed behind the ears, you were of the â€Å"animal type†(MyerRead MoreImplications of Living in a Gendered Society Essay1910 Words   |  8 Pagesyoung mens futures can be considered a concern and a social issue. Throughout this essay the matter concerning young men and where they fit into society will be analysed and explored from a gender perspective. To facilitate this critique a gender perspective needs to be defined, Machel (2002: www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/discussion/gender.html) quite clearly states that This approach does not look at women and men alone, but at the relationship between them, how societiesRead MoreArtificial Insemination 42697 Words   |  11 Pagesalso not excusable reasons for the moral justification of artificial insemination. Morally, no amount of good intention and surrounding circumstance however great can make an objectively evil act good. The end does not justify the means. D. Personal Critique on Artificial Insemination The Church’s teachings are reflected in my stand on this bioethical issue of Human Artificial Insemination (A.I.). While you may say that choosing it is a convenient way for me to justify my stand, because we knowRead More Sexuality in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Essay5052 Words   |  21 Pagesvested with varied--and shifting--values. The poem uses references to the (imagined) British past to complicate any simple reading of the tale it tells in terms of sexual morality or transgression.1 Sir Gawain and the Green Knight opens with a summary of the events leading from the fall of Troy to the establishment of Britain: Sià ¾en à ¾e sege and à ¾e assaut watz sesed at Troye, à ¾e borgh brittened and brent to brondez and askez, à ¾e tulk à ¾at à ¾e trammes of tresoun à ¾er wroght Watz tried for his tricherieRead MoreFamily Developmental Theory2734 Words   |  11 Pagesand death Phase II - contemporary theory – Theorists Focused on Roles and Relationships within the family †¢ Family is composed of social roles and relationships that change with each stage of the family Phase III – Theorists critique the theory †¢ Look at the limitations and strengths of the framework. †¢ One criticism is that the framework is biased towards intact nuclear families, only one of many different types of family structures Major Constructs Read MoreSilent Power : The Philosophies Of Benjamin Zander2667 Words   |  11 Pageslistened to them and allowed them each a way to make their voices heard. He considers how much greatness one is willing to give another, and further asks, â€Å"Who am I being that their eyes are not shining?† As a teacher, I feel that this is one of the gifts I desire - I dare say need - to give to my students. I must teach in a way that allows them to show their greatness to the world. The sixth practice is simply called, â€Å"Rule Number 6†, which is â€Å"Don’t take yourself so seriously†. Zander eloquentlyRead MoreThe Relationship Between Personality Types, Test Anxiety and Self-Esteem with Regards to Academic Achievement2988 Words   |  12 Pagesimportant, my study will use college students and not children. Asendorpf and Wilpers (1998) found that extraversion and socialablity predicted the overall interaction rate, the number of new peers, and various aspects of relationships with opposite – sex peers. Whether the students reported a partner or not and the number of quality of their non-peer relationships were not affected by their personality. The study that will be conducted here will focus on all aspects of extraverts and introverts, alsoRead MoreSummary Of Funds Of Knowledge And Teaching Other Peoples Children3644 Words   |  15 PagesSummary of Funds of Knowledge and Teaching other Peoples Children Two sets of opposing idealss Education does not just take place in schools. Classrooms are places where many forms of discourses come together. Students and teachers with various forms of knowledge and ways of communicating interact together and unfortunately some ways of knowing and communicating hold more value than others. Sometimes researcher should stop looking at the bigger picture; capitalist economies and the true nature

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Is Humility A Personality Essay - 2186 Words

Humility Humility is a concept that has been discussed, researched, and tested as a factor of personality. It has little empirical results in personality psychology yet can be determined by a series of tests in order to gain insight on similar characteristics of humility. One test is of self-report in which the patient records answers based on questions provided by the researcher. There is also the Implicit Association Test of Humility vs Arrogance, developed by Rowatt, that produces words onto a screen and the participant associates those words with themselves or with others. Another test is one in which the researcher will ask participants to identify if a target person demonstrates humility (Davis, Worthington, Jr., Hook, 2009). Each of these methods yield results but can also be discredited through further research. Psychology of personality theorists have indicated various perspectives in order to fully understand behavior and traits in personality. This proposes the question o f the amount of influence these perspectives possess on humility as a personality trait. Trait Definition Humility is a neglected trait that has had little empirical evidence until recently (Tangney, 2000, pg. 70). This is not entirely true by other sources’ definitions. Humility is described in the APA Dictionary of Psychology as a trait of being humble in which one understands their limitations of knowledge and capability and does not tend to focus on themselves (VandenBos APA,Show MoreRelatedCorrelation Between Openness And The Accuracy Of An Individual s Answers1098 Words   |  5 Pagesis that there is no significant positive correlation between the two variables. 2) Is honesty/humility related to claiming familiarity with unreal concepts (false alarms)? I hypothesize that, because honesty/humility is related to how willing a person is to be insincere, that we should see a negative correlation between honesty/humility and claiming familiarity with unreal concepts. Honesty humility measures the extent to which a person seeks high apparent status, and therefore they may overclaimRead MoreContrasting Self Report And Consensus Ratings Of Intellectual Humility And Arrogance1463 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Contrasting self-report and consensus ratings of intellectual humility and arrogance† by Benjamin R. Meagher, , , Joseph C. Leman, Joshua P. Bias, Shawn J. Latendresse, and Wade C. Rowatt, the scientists had multiple goals they wanted to achieve. First and foremost, they wanted to find out whether or not intellectual humility and intellectual arrogance are two ends of the same personality trait (like extraversion and introversion). In this study, humility was defined as â€Å"having an accurate or moderate assessmentRead MoreThe Five Factor Model Of Personality1704 Words   |  7 PagesThis essay will firstly assess a variety of models of personality, firstly taking into account Gordon Allport’s model, followed by Raymond Cattell’s 16 trait factor model and Eysenck’s, 3 factor model. Before, critically discussing the five factor model of personality and individual traits, these are made up of the characteristics of an individual which includes their, thoughts and behaviours that make a person unique. Finally this essay will suggest one other factor which might usefully be addedRead MoreCooperation Is At The Heart Of Human Social Life Essay1301 Words   |  6 Pages(Balliet, Parks, Joireman, 2009; Zhao Smillie, 2015) – relates to personality traits capturing general prosocial tendencies. In particular, social mindfulness has been linked to two trait dimensions revealing consistent links to other types of prosocial behavior: Honesty-Humility and Social Value Orientation (SVO). Honesty-Humility represents the sixth basic trait dimension as conceptualized in the HEXACO model of personality structure (e.g., Ashton Lee, 2007; Ashton, Lee, de Vries, 2014)Read MoreWhat Do You Think Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses?963 Words   |  4 Pagesare your strengths and weaknesses? Upon completing the personality Type Inventory by Hogan and Champagne, the results revealed the hidden aspect of my key personality traits that I wasn’t aware of. I ended up with the Introvert, Intuitive, Thinking and Judging Personality which is described as â€Å"being one of the rarest and most strategically capable personality types† (16 Personalities, 2011, para.1). The INTJ personality holders, like mine, are distinguished by various strengths suchRead MoreThe Leadership Concepts Of A Business Owner Ed Currie940 Words   |  4 Pagesnever solely judged by their results; Leaders’ personality traits are always a factor. Some leadership researches believe every leader has certain personality traits that determine leadership effectiveness. Currie does not believe in this leadership trait theory. DuBrin summaries this theory as leaders having the â€Å"right stuff† (37). However, Currie does believe that certain traits are important to his leadership style and are some of the â€Å"General Personality Traits of Effective Leaders† (38). The traitsRead MorePride in Humanity has Led to the Downfall of Many Essay720 Words   |  3 Pagescars and lavish dinners. Instead, he will enjoy the cold look of the jury and the solemn stare of the judge when he gets indicted for fraud for his pride-driven, grossly egregious conduct. Humility (include this definition of humility and the citation in the proper format in the PP: humility is a virtuous trait, seen by others and self-identified in moments of honest self-evaluation, that is characterized by other-oriented, prosocial, altruistic motives, modesty, willingness to honestlyRead MoreLeadership Philosophy : A Leader s Employees, And Growth Of The Organization1595 Words   |  7 Pagesleadership philosophy is important to the success of a leader, development of the leader’s employees, and growth of the organization. As a future leader, I will explore my own leadership philosophy built on the principles of integrity, openness, and humility. I will discuss the importance of creating an environment that fosters mutual respect, recognizes each individual’s potential, and inspires success. Using my own philosophy as a guide, I will discuss and analyze the approach a commander takesRead MoreAchilles : An Epic Hero1253 Words   |  6 Pages Perh aps one of the most important characteristics of the epic hero is having an epic flaw. While Achilles may be near perfect in combat, his personality is most definitely flawed. His pride leads him to overconfidence, his anger leads to rage on the battlefield, and his emotions will overcome his honor in war. These characteristics of Achilles personality are often referred to as the rage of Achilles. This can be seen in the opening lines of the poem, â€Å"Achilles’ rage, Black and murderous†¦godlikeRead MoreHow I will Grow in Magnanimity1033 Words   |  4 PagesHow will I grow in magnanimity? In order to grow in magnanimity I will first identify my dignity as a human being, and then the power of the mind, heart, and will. I will then identify my personal freedom. I will strive to develop my personality and that of those around me. I will seek mentors that will give me advice and help me grow into a magnanimous person. I will set goals for my self and those around me aiming to achieve the maximum potential of perfection and greatness. I will also strive

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Human Hand Emulator free essay sample

The Human Hand Movement Emulator combines concepts of Mechanical and Electronics Engineering to form a robotic emulator hand, that can grip, move and perform similar tasks as done by a human hand at places that are inaccessible or not fit for the human hand. CHAPTER 2: WORKING PRINCIPLE: The robotic arm will work in two modes. 1. Input by human: The robotic arm will emulate the actions performed by human arm. This will be done using a virtual arm which will be controlled by the human. The microcontroller will sense the motions performed by the irtual arm, understand them and output signals to the robotic arm. The robotic arm will move based on the signals provided by microcontroller. 2. Pre-programmed set of motions: The microcontroller will be fed with a program. This program will contain pre-determined set of movements. According to the instructions provided in the program, the robotic arm will perform the movements. We will write a custom essay sample on Human Hand Emulator or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This mode of operation is generally useful in assembling. CHAPTER 3: Background of the project 3. 1 ARDUINO-An open source electronics prototyping platform Arduino is an open-source electronics prototyping platform based on flexible, easy-to-use hardware and software. Its intended for artists, designers, hobbyists, and anyone interested in creating interactive objects or environments. Arduino can sense the environment by receiving input from a variety of sensors and can affect its surroundings by controlling lights, motors, and other actuators. The microcontroller on the board is programmed using the Arduino programming language (based on Wiring) and the Arduino development environment (based on Processing). Arduino projects can be stand-alone or they can communicate with software running on a computer (e. g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP). An Arduinos microcontroller is also pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory, compared with other devices that typically need an external programmer. fig 3. 1 1-USB jack, 2-Power jack, 3-Power selection jumper, 4-Digital pins, 5-Analog I/p pins, 6-Power pins, 7-Reset button. Digital Pins In addition to the specific functions listed below, the digital pins on an Arduino board can be used for ipin has an internal pull-up resistor which can be turned on and off using digitalWrite() (w/ a value of HIGH or LOW, respectively) when the pin is configured as an input. The maximum current per pin is 40 mA. * Serial: 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). Used to receive (RX) and transmit (TX) TTL serial data. On the Arduino Diecimila, these pins are connected to the corresponding pins of the FTDI USB-to-TTL Serial chip. On the Arduino BT, they are connected to the corresponding pins of the WT11 Bluetooth module. On the Arduino Mini and LilyPad Arduino, they are intended for use with an external TTL serial module (e. g. the Mini-USB Adapter). * External Interrupts: 2 and 3. These pins can be configured to trigger an interrupt on a low value, a rising or falling edge, or a change in value. See the attachInterrupt() function for details. * PWM: 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, and 11. Provide 8-bit PWM output with the analogWrite() function. On boards with an ATmega8, PWM output is available only on pins 9, 10, and 11. * BT Reset: 7. (Arduino BT-only) Connected to the reset line of the bluetooth module. SPI: 10 (SS), 11 (MOSI), 12 (MISO), 13 (SCK). These pins support SPI communication, which, although provided by the underlying hardware, is not currently included in the Arduino language. * LED 13. On the Diecimila and LilyPad, there is a built-in LED connected to digital pin 13. When the pin is HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, its off. Analog Pins In addition to the specific functions listed belo w, the analog input pins support 10-bit analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) using the analogRead() function. Most of the analog inputs can also be used as digital pins: analog nput 0 as digital pin 14 through analog input 5 as digital pin 19. Analog inputs 6 and 7 (present on the Mini and BT) cannot be used as digital pins. * I2C: 4 (SDA) and 5 (SCL). Support I2C (TWI) communication using the Wire library (documentation on the Wiring website). Power Pins * VIN (sometimes labelled 9V). The input voltage to the Arduino board when its using an external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or other regulated power source). You can supply voltage through this pin, or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin. Note that different boards accept different input voltages ranges, please see the documentation for your board. Also note that the LilyPad has no VIN pin and accepts only a regulated input. * 5V. The regulated power supply used to power the microcontroller and other components on the board. This can come either from VIN via an on-board regulator, or be supplied by USB or another regulated 5V supply. * 3V3. (Diecimila-only) A 3. 3 volt supply generated by the on-board FTDI chip. * GND. Ground pins. Other Pins * AREF. Reference voltage for the analog inputs. Used with analogReference(). * Reset. (Diecimila-only) Bring this line LOW to reset the microcontroller. Typically used to add a reset button toshields which block the one on the board. Arduino projects can be stand-alone or they can communicate with software running on a computer (e. g. Flash, Processing,  MaxMSP). An Arduinos microcontroller is also pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip  flash memory, compared with other devices that typically need an external  programmer. ATmega8A Microcontroller The Atmel ATmega8A is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC architecture. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega8A achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed. The ATmega8A has 8 KB of flash memory for storing code (of which 2 KB is for the boot loader), 1 KB of â€Å"SRAM† and 512 bytes of â€Å"EEPROM† (which can be read and written with the EEPROM library). . 2 Servo motor A  Servomotor  is a  rotary actuator  that allows for precise control of angular position. It is a  closed-loop  servomechanism that uses position feedback to control its motion and final position. The input to its control is some signal, either analogue or digital, representing the position commanded for the output shaft. A servo motor consists of several main parts, the motor and gearbox, a position sensor, an e rror amplifier and motor driver and a circuit to decode the requested position. Servomechanism It is an automatic device that uses error-sensing  negative feedback  to correct the performance of a mechanism. Position control A common type of servo provides  position control. Servos are commonly electrical or partially electronic in nature, using an electric motor  as the primary means of creating mechanical  force. Other types of servos use  hydraulics,  pneumatics, or magnetic  principles. Servos operate on the principle of negative feedback, where the control input is compared to the actual position of the mechanical system as measured by some sort of  transducer  at the output. Any difference between the actual and wanted values (an error signal) is amplified (and converted) and used to drive the system in the direction necessary to reduce or eliminate the error. This procedure is one widely used application of  control theory. Block diagram fig 3. 2 Servo Motor control: Servo motors have three wires: power, ground, and signal. The power wire is typically red, and should be connected to the 5V pin on the Arduino board. The ground wire is typically black or brown and should be connected to a ground pin on the Arduino board. The signal pin is typically yellow or orange and should be connected to pin 9 on the Arduino board. The potentiometer should be wired so that its two outer pins are connected to power (+5V) and ground, and its middle pin is connected to analog input 0 on the Arduino. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: fig 3. 6 3. 3 Potentiometer A potentiometer informally, a pot, within electronics technology is a component, a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divide. If only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat. A potentiometer is essentially a voltage divider used for measuring electric potential (voltage). Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment. Potentiometers operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers, for example, in a joystick. Potentiometers comprise a resistive element, a sliding contact (wiper) that moves along the element, making good electrical contact with one part of it, electrical terminals at each end of the element, a mechanism that moves the wiper from one end to the other, and a housing containing the element and wiper. Potentiometers can be used as position feedback devices in order to create closed loop control, such as in a  servomechanism. 3. 4 Flex sensors Flex sensors are sensors that changes the resistance depending on the amount of bend on the sensor. They convert the change in bend to electrical resistance-more the bend the more the resistance value. Flex sensors are usually in the form of a thin strip from 1-5 long that vary in resistance. Working Principle: Flex sensors are analog sensors and they work as variable analog dividers. Flex sensors are carbon resistive elements within a thin flexible substrate. More the carbon means lesser will be resistance. When the substrate is bent the sensor gives the output resistance relative to the bend radius. More the bend radius more will be the resistance value. fig 3. 7 Types of Flex sensors: 1. Uni-Directional 2. Bi-Directional Uni-Directional Flex Sensors One directional Flex Sensor is a unique component that changes resistance when bent or flexed . An un flexed sensor Style A has a nominal resistance of approximately 10,000 ohms (10 K). As the flex sensor is bent in one direction the resistance gradually increases. Range of resistances of the FLX-03 Style A sensor may vary between 10K and 40K depending upon the degree of the flex. An un flexed sensor Style B begins with a infinitely high nominal resistance. As the flex sensor is bent in one direction the resistance gradually decreases. Range of resistances of the FLX-03 Style B sensor may decrease to under 10K depending upon the degree of the flex. fig 3. 8 Some applications for the Flexible Bend Sensor are: * Collision detection on mobile robots VR Gloves and VR suits * Physics applications and experiments CHAPTER 4: Block diagram fig 4. 1 Explanation The hardware operates in a way that when you receive a serial input from potentiometer or flex sensors that tells the arduino to perform conversion of analog to digital data, the MCU would read the inputs and sends corresponding PWM output and then send it to the servo, which is connected to a potentiometer or sensor to determine its angular position. The servos are powered by an external DC power supply. Servos are controlled by sending them a pulse of variable width. Given the rotation constraints of the servo, neutral is defined to be the position where the servo has exactly the same amount of potential rotation in the clockwise direction as it does in the counter clockwise direction. The potentiometers were used to determine the position of the base and flex sensors for elbow joints. It gave back to the microcontroller a voltage feedback that was relative to the rotation. The ground and power lines are connected to the Arduino’s ground and Vcc. The wiper connections go into the arduino’s analog input pins. As the joint rotates the voltage changes linearly with the rotation. DC Power Supply to provide 5 Volts of power to the servos. CHAPTER 5: APPLICATIONS * Bomb disposal: to provide safety to the bomb disposal squad by providing an extra line of defense. * To lift nuclear wastes without harming the humans. * Mine disposal (dispose of old or unstable explosives, such as ones used in  quarrying  or  mining). * The robotic arm can be designed to perform any desired task such as welding, gripping, spinning etc. , depending on the application. For example robot arms in automotive assembly line perform a variety of tasks such as wielding and parts rotation and placement during assembly. In space the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System have multi degree of freedom robotic arms that have been used to perform a variety of tasks such as inspections of the Space Shuttle using a specially deployed boom with cameras and sensors attached at the end effector. * The robot arms can be autonomous or controlled manually and can be used to perform a variety of ta sks with great accuracy. The robotic arm can be fixed or mobile (i. e. wheeled) and can be designed for industrial or home applications. Robotic hands often have built-in pressure sensors that tell the computer how hard the robot is gripping a particular object. This keeps the robot from dropping or breaking whatever its carrying. Other end effectors include blowtorches, drills and spray painters this improves their performance. The scope of use of a robotic arm is very vast. There are numerous fields in which using manpower is dangerous. This project will try to act as substitute at these fields and decrease the load of risk that humans have to face. In many of the above stated applications, humans working in those conditions can be harmful. What we aim to do with this project is that the robotic arm will be used in place of humans. Taking one of the examples from above, it’s very difficult to execute precision work in sub-zero temperatures. So, we use the robotic arm to perform these tasks. CHAPTER 6: FUTURE SCOPE: * The robotic arm so far designed is able to lift the objects. It is able to lift the objects of medium weight. In order to extend it to some extent, more advanced tools and material with the capacity to withhold the heavy weight objects are to be used, which is then applicable in warfront and used as a rescuer at several places where there is a need and also in industrial areas, military, and so on. We would like to continue this project for the next year while extending some of the functionalities. We would like to make the project portable by adding motion as one of the features. We would also like to add wireless remote control and camera to make it flexible, thus increasing its fields of usage. REFERENCES: http://www. arduino. cc (About Arduino kit)? http://science. howstuffworks. com/robot2. htm (Basic Structure Of Robotic Arm)? Saha, H. K. Introduction To Robotics. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2008.? Banzi, Massimo. Getting Started With Arduino. OReilly Media, 2011.?

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Target Behavior Discussion

The identification of practical and ethical considerations related to using a reversal design with a chosen target behavior is an important step that has to be taken.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Target Behavior Discussion specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The design of a target behavior is necessary in order to comprehend how something is done for being eliminated or added in regards to a number of ordinary conditions (Spiegler, 2015). The reversal design is considered to be one of the most effective single-subject research designs as it explains how treatment may or may not influence the baseline. Still, some interventions cannot be reserved because of a number of ethical and practical considerations. From an ethical perspective, it may happen that the return to the baseline period creates some harm to a participant. It is also necessary to be sure that a second intervention has enough benefits in comparison to the stability of the process. Cooper, Heron, and Heward (2007) define authority, permission, resources, and social validity as four main ethical considerations in the reversal design. From a practical point of view, single-subject research designs do not require too many issues and explanations: it is enough to choose a few participants, evaluate the effects of interventions on the participants, and use statistics to approve the chosen intervention. It is also possible to facilitate measurements on any stage of the process and achieve the same results (Spiegler, 2015). Anyway, it is always necessary to remember that an ABAB design requires the achievement of the required behavior change more than the conformation that a particular intervention takes place (Sundel Sundel, 2004).Advertising Looking for essay on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is why the researcher should take into consideration both, ethical and practical reasons for the design, and think about the possible outcomes beforehand to create appropriate relations with the participants. Target Behavior Example with an Inappropriate Ethical Aspect For example, it is ethically inappropriate to use a reversal design when a 3-year-old child under analysis is provided with a doll as the main distraction to make her play alone without paying attention to her parents. Then, the doll is taken away from the child to analyze the baseline stages before and after an intervention. In this case, the researcher cannot predict the reaction of a child and be sure that the baseline phase will be easy to identify. As a rule, the child’s reaction on taking away something is unpredictable, and it is ethically inappropriate to use such design just in order to check the effectiveness of an intervention. First, it touches upon the child’s emotional state. Second, parents undergo certain effects as well. And finally, people around may be distracted by the child’s behavior. Target Behavior Example with an Appropriate Ethical Aspect In order to introduce an alternative design for the same behavior that would be more appropriate, it is possible to use the ABC design that allows additional improvements and identification of a new variable that may help to control the situation. For example, as soon as the doll is taken away, the child may be provided with another alternative (a toy, an activity, or a person). This alternative helps to protect the emotional status of a child and deprive care givers of the necessity to calm the child down. Still, there are many other options that may be taken into consideration because the analysis of child’s behavior is hard to predict all the time.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Target Behavior Discussion specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Cooper, J.O., Heron, T., Heward, W.L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Spiegler, M. (2015). Contemporary behavior therapy. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Sundel, M. Sundel, S.S. (2004). Behavior change in the human services: Behavioral and cognitive principles and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. This essay on Target Behavior Discussion was written and submitted by user JoantheMouse to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.